Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2016/2017 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Barbara Citterio
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Pharmacy (LM-13)
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The morphological, metabolic and genetic characterization of microorganisms is the educational objective of the first part of the course.

The study of some human  pathogens  and the virus characterization are the educational goals of the second part of the course.

The various features of  microrganisms-environment and microrganisms-human host interactions are the educational goals of the final part of the course


Structure of the prokaryotic cell:
-General characteristics, microscopic study, shapes and disposal;
-Architecture of the bacterial cell genetic material, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall peptidoglycan and organization of the cell wall in Gram +, Gram- and acid-resistant capsule, pili, flagella
Reproduction of bacteria:
-Cell division, bacterial spore, VBNC.
Cultivation of bacteria:
-Nutritional requirements of microorganisms, culture media, bacterial growth, growth curve of bacteria, cultivation techniques.
Bacterial metabolism:
-Energy and enzymes
-Energy metabolism: bacterial fermentation, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, phosphorylation, macromolecular synthesis (DNA, RNA, proteins, peptidoglycan).
Bacterial genetics:
-Bacterial chromosome
-Plasmids and antibiotic resistance.
-Mutations and their chemical bases
-Genetic recombinations (transformation, translation, conjugation)
Bacterial Pathogenesis:
-Mechanisms of host colonization;
-Deep-tissue penetration of the host organism
-Evasion mechanisms of host defense
-Virulence factors: flagella, capsule, fimbriae, peptidoglycan, teichoic acids, outer membrane proteins, enzymes, bacterial exotoxins, lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin).
Notes on the mechanism of action of antibacterial drugs
Main characteristics of some groups of bacteria:
Staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, Enterobacteriaceae (Salmonella, Escherichia, Yersinie), Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Vibrio

Virus structure:
-general characteristics and classification;
-structure of the virions (genome, capsid, pericapsid)
Replicative cycle of viruses:
-stages of the viral replication cycle (adsorption, penetration, exposure, macromolecular synthesis, assembly)
-replicative cycles of RNA and DNA viruses of medical interest.
Cultivation of viruses
Pathogenicity of the virus
Microbiological and virological diagnosis
General characteristics of fungi and protozoa of medical interest
Basics of Immunology:
-the antigens
-the constitutive defenses against infection (professional phagocytes, phagocytosis, complement, interferon)
-the inducible defenses against infection (the humoral immune response, the cell-mediated immune response)

Bridging Courses

Animal Biology

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Knowledge and  understanding ability. Knowledge of   the microbial importance and role especially for the human health. Understanding the specific words and language of this discipline

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding. Understanding the microbiology importance as biological subject to study and understand the morphological, metabolic and genetic features of microorganisms

Independent judgment. Understanding the bacteria importance as simplified models to study more complex organisms

Communicative ability. Capability of using the microbiological language and of linking the different microbiological feaures.

Learning capability. Acquired knowledge will allow the student to understand the characteristics of human host-microorganism interaction.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

Possible seminars agreed upon with students

Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment


Frontal lectures

Course books

M. La Placa, Principi di microbiologia medica, Ed. Esculapio
M. Madigan, J. Martinko, BROK, Biologia dei Microrganismi, Ed. Ambrosiana
G. Dehò, E. galli Biologia dei microrganismi, Ed. Ambrosiana


Oral examination

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

« back Last update: 15/11/2016

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