Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2015/2016 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Giorgio Famiglini

Assigned to the Degree Course

Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course aims to illustrate the main analytical techniques used for the quali-quantitative determination of the chemical components of artifacts or in environments where they are stored (pollutants). Chemical analysis will then be used by restorers for choosing the most suitable materials for the work of their competence


01 - Presentation of the course. The role of analytical chemistry in the analysis of cultural heritage.
02 - Monitoring of hazardous pollutants and materials analysis. Concepts of analyte, matrix, and sample.
03 - The phases of the chemical analysis. Sampling and sample preparation.
04 - Units of measurement in analytical chemistry. The concepts of concentration and absolute quantity. Precision and accuracy in measurements. Interference and contamination.
05 - Tools for sampling.
06 - Qualitative and quantitative analysis. Calibration: calibration curves with external standard, internal standard, and standard addition methods. Instrumental and method limits of detection and limits of quantification.
07 - Goals of sample preparation: concentration and purification.
08 - Environmental contaminants dangerous to the historical and artistic material. Sampling and determination of contaminants.
09 - Passive and active samplers. Portable or fixed instrumentation for the determination of NOx, SOx, ozone, hydrocarbons, etc.. Sampling and analysis of the powders.
10 - Principles of microscopy. The optical microscopy and the electronic one. Resolving power. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Sample preparation.
11 - Main components of an electron microscope and operation. The microanalysis and principles of operation.
12 - Principles of spectroscopy. The electromagnetic radiation.
13 - Principles of atomic and molecular absorption and emission. Electronic, vibrational and rotational energy levels.
14 - Absorbance and transmittance. Lambert-Beer law. Absorption and emission spectra.
15 - Structure of a molecular absorption spectrophotometer. Sources in the molecular absorption spectrophotometer. Selectors wavelengths: reticles and prisms. Detectors for spectroscopy. Spectrophotometers in single and double haul.
16 - Fluorescence and fluorescence quantum yield. Fluorescent molecules. Structure of a spectrophotometer for analysis in fluorescence.
17 - Atomic absorption and emission. Atomizers. ICP-MS.
18 - Hollow cathode lamps.
19 - XRF techniques. Laser ablation. Isotopic analysis. Neutronic activation. PIXE and PIGE spectroscopy. Surface analysis techniques.
20 - Applications to the analysis of cultural heritage.
21 - IR and Raman spectroscopy.
22 - X-ray diffractometry
23 - Introduction to chromatographic techniques. The chromatographic process. Separation mechanisms. Partition coefficient. Chromatographic resolution.
24 - Gas chromatography.
25 - Structure of a gas chromatograph. Gas chromatographic columns. Injectors. FID and ECD detectors. Concept of programmed temperature analysis.
26 - Liquid chromatography. Structure of a liquid chromatograph. Columns for liquid chromatography. Injectors. UV-Vis and electrochemical detectors. Concept of gradient elution analysis.
27 - Applications of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography analyses to cultural heritage samples.
28 - Ion exchange chromatography. General principles.
29 - Anion and cation exchange. The electrochemical detector. The concept of suppression of the eluent and types of suppressors. Applications of ion chromatography to cultural heritage samples.
30 - Principles of mass spectrometry. The ionization techniques. The electron ionization. The fragmentation. Source, analyzer and detector. The mass spectrum. The mass spectrometry resolution. GC-MS.
31 - Scan and Selected Ion Monitoring analyses.
32 - Applications of GC-MS to cultural heritage samples.
33 - LC-MS. Electrospray ionization and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization.

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

The student will know the main analytical techniques available for the quali-quantitative determination of the components that make up the art works: paintings, colors, minerals, metals, glass, etc. At the end of the course he will be able to choose the best technique for type of analytes to search and type of article. At the end of the path, the restorer must know how to choose the most suitable techniques to identify the components of the works on which he is working for a better choice of materials to use. The restorer must know the main chemical contaminants present in potentially dangerous areas of conservation of the works of art and how to determine their presence to prepare a better conservation

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment




Knowledge of basic chemistry

Course books

R. Cozzi, P. Protti, T. Ruaro, Elementi di Analisi Chimica Strumentale, seconda edizione, Zanichelli.
K.A. Rubinson, J.F. Rubinson, Chimica Analitica Strumentale, Zanichelli.
L. Paolillo, I. Giudicianni, La Diagnostica nei Beni Culturali, Moderni Metodi di Indagine, Longhia.


Oral examination

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students


The same of attending students


The same of attending students

Course books

The same of attending students


Oral examination

« back Last update: 10/09/2015


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