Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


Logic and epistemology of Communication.Collective intelligence
Logica ed epistemologia della comunicazione.L'intelligenza collettiva

A.Y. Credits
2016/2017 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Alessandro Di Caro Wednesday at 10-11, Thursday 10-12, Friday 10-11 hours
Teaching in foreign languages
Course partially taught in a foreign language French English
This course is taught partially in Italian and partially in a foreign language. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Communication Sciences (L-20)
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

Artificial intelligence, until a few years ago considered a branch of computer science is now warming aspects and philosophical aspects .In primarily because in feeling and in common practice, communication is increasingly taking place through the electronic medium. It 's inevitable that a technical transformation, with a significant impact, affecting more and more solid on the truth and practice of communication.


The goal is the artificial intelligence in the computer version, and in  social media. The philosophical interest of this goal is not related only to the methodological aspects, the logic of the so-called Turing test. The interest in a possible mechanical intelligence is determined by the size of otherness that a machine intelligence may pose to human intelligence.

Bridging Courses

Basic knowledge of logic. Can serve this purpose a part of the text Wittgenstein interprets Wittgenstein (See especially the indispensable premise) Knowledge Turing test . Knowledge Ray Kurweil.(website)

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

1. Knowledge and understanding: 
1.1. They are acquired through the study of texts and the exchange of information and examples with the teacher and / or dialogue with other students- the concept of artificial intelligence.
2. Applying knowledge and understanding:The exposure of a complex subject such as artificial intelligence must first be encoded together and, secondly, exposed individually.

 2.1. AI exemples, which can be considered correct or incorrect depending on the collective judgment of the class and/or of the teacher.Capacity of judgment:  the critical tools to choose which is the correct reasoning of a document and a text. 
3.1. It 's always difficult to define unambiguously judgment. However students going to apply logic elements for  distinguish without logical reasoning errors. Logic doesn't not narrative text. Students will have to demonstrate to recognize new arguments and be able to reduce to known logic diagrams. Often in artificial intelligence mingle  disparate fields, philosophical, psychological and neurological. The student will demonstrate understanding of the diversity of domains.
4. Communication skills: the communication above all in the dimension of the philosophy of science is faced with precisely the misunderstandings, the definitions, concepts often have no immediate use. The communication is therefore very important for the development of the correct language from a grammatical point of view and logical 
4.1. These skills will be compared repeatedly to the teacher and fellow students asking after exposure if the subject has been done clearly and without misunderstanding.
5. Learning skills: The ability to learn is the result of memory (passive element) and linguistic skills (restatement). 
 These will have to alternate moments of listening to moments of critical reworking and staff. The same argument can be treated by different groups or individuals.
 5.1. How are they acquired? Through listening and reworking they can esssere caught by the teacher and the whole class diversity of approaches as regards the ability to learn. A logical scheme, such an implication material has many narrative and linguistic applications. 


Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

We will try to use the method of the school "turned over" to their practices of distance learning has been used previously. It is heard in separate modules the result of understanding of the points of the syllabus that will be developed together from a previous knowledge pursued independently.

Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment


The lessons follow a modulation that will follow closely the development of the syllabus. Each module can be chosen beforehand by the students and discussed later.


Frequency of lectures and study of texts.

Course books

Alessandro Di Caro, Pensare ex machina. Alan Turing alla prova, Ed.Aracne, Rome 2015. The text being requested on demand goes directly to the publisher.
Alessandro Di Caro, Wittgenstein interpreta Wittgenstein.Il "secondo" Wittgenstein's legge il Tractatus , Aracne, Rome 2015 As above.

the student can directly order books publisher:



Checks elapsed points of syllabus; Final oral verification.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students


Study of texts online consultation of materials in
if necessary also write to:


Knowledge of all points of the syllabus

Course books

- Alessandro Di Caro Pensare ex machina.Alan Turing alla prova, Aracne, Rome, 2015, the text that is on demand must be requested directly to the publisher.
-Alessandro Di Caro, Wittgenstein interpreta Wittgenstein. Il "secondo" Wittgenstein legge il Tractatus , Aracne, Rome 2015 as above.

the student can directly order books publisher:





The course is offered also on-line inside the Moodle platform > blended.uniurb.itSILLABO: hours lessons

February: (every lesson counts two hours total 36 hours).

Wednesday 15 Thursday 16 Friday 17

Wednesday 22 Thursday 23 Friday 24


Wednesday 1 Thursday 2 Friday 3

Wednesday 8 Thursday 9 Friday 10

mercoledi15 Thursday 16 Friday 17

Wednesday 22, Thursday 23, Friday 24

1 lesson We are already in the future. The acceleration huge and unpredictable technology has a name, an acronym GNR (genetics, nanotechnology, robotics and we can add to this the one the computer). The management of our time is ambiguous because the future is, by definition, unpredictable. Sometimes we try to chase the future, but as he said those who want to W. anticipate their time, from his time will be achieved. So the future is something that is not, because that is just the past. A strange object unique, as is the strange singularity of Kurzweil. (See text Think ex machina)
2 lesson Of abbreviation GNRI us privilegeremo last lettera.Cioè computing. The reason is given by the book about Wittgenstein. This author is like its counterpart in the other book (Alan Turing) an enigma. It seems to have a filosofo.Ma his way. No genealogies, teachers, cultural backgrounds classic. It almost seems that departs significantly from the cultural tradition europea.E 'a logical, rather a philosopher of logic. But this philosophy of logic arrives paradoxically to favor the century of information technology.
3 lesson. Wittgenstein not stand growths of language. He believes that in any language, indeed in every area of ​​communication there is a very simple armor: the armor logic. This allows us to speak, to argue. The words, adjectives, literature and history that are seasoned of grandiloquent words should be silent. The philosophical problems are not really problems, cramps are linguistic misunderstandings that the proper use of logic dissolve.
4) However, the final destination of the Tractatus, what I called "heart" of the Tractatus leads to a simple mode of all armor logical: the denial joint. However the joint denial is (switching from logical information technology) a logical port with which you can build according to Kurzweil every other door logica.Wittgenstein not even know what a computer, because it will be invented later by Alan Turing.Ma Kurzweil you know very well, because it is one of Google engineers; It has helped to invent the digital translation.
5) Wittgenstein and Turing met. The literature has not been able to build almost anything about this meeting. Instead it is important because it allows us to understand not only the mysterious Wittgenstein but also the mysterious Turing.Ho tried to bring cards solution one and the other mystery in the text Think ex machina. In any case, in all the two authors - to a different extent -there is this passion for the technique and for the machine. We can not forget that this issue is not peculiar only to loro.Il third chapter of Thinking ex machina remember. The theme of the art, as controversial theme covers most of the issues of contemporary philosophy.
6) In a part of his work Kurzweil says that the future will become more and more technical, "because the machines will be progressed, becoming similar to humans and then beyond. The technology will be, metaphorically, the opposable thumb that will enable our next evolutionary step. " Of course this future are gathering clouds of apocalyptic character or fiction. But there are also limits to religious themes. How to immortality. The human may be the trans-human ?.
7) The comparison with the themes transumanistici (cap.IV book Think ex machina) lead us on the other hand still encounter between Wittgenstein and Turing.In this first hint I purposely leave hidden what seems to me the remarkable harmony between the two authors. Wittgenstein understands perfectly the processing of Turing in a step short of his unpublished work. But continues to think that the computer is simply a man who calculates. The misunderstanding is inevitable, even in the consciousness of Turing, yet.
8) This lesson is (Cap.V) very difficult for the simple reason that they are exposed to the completeness theorem of Gödel and the text of 37 of Alan Turing. The comparison is made to show that despite the declaration of a lot of logical and mathematical and Gödel himself. The two theorems are not the same thing. Turing knows very well and moves away from the approach of Gödel. Godel instead cites Turing at the end of his memory as irrefutable proof that his theorem is valid. Why is not the same thing? Why Gödel's proof is a theorem axiomatic and is based on the concept of proof.
9) Instead (cap.VI) Turing's theorem is based on the characteristic size of the numbers and computable on a mechanism that will be the prototype of all subsequent machine computable. Each subsequent computer. But this memory has two types of Turing machine: the circular machine, the machine free from the circle and finally the universal machine.
10) In Chapter VII Turing is the problem of numbers computabili.Cioè of countability. The numbers are infinite, and yet, once given a way we can always count them. So the numerability, with a method leads us to the power of infinite numerability. Instead there are uncountable numbers are those for example from 0 to 1. We say that these are fractional numbers. A good rate because the method can number the infinite fractions? Yes? (This question was born the mathematical problem of the continuum, because if the numbers from 0 to 1 are countable, the constant exists, if there is no continuous). Cantor with his method Diagonal had said no. Critics assimilate theorem Turing to Cantor. Is a mistake.
11) First (cap.VII) Turing explains better example usual Cantor. But to him that example does not fit in Turing not affect much the numbers but computable computable sequences that may give rise to a universal machine. Now the universal machine that loaded on whether all possible computable sequence (algorithm) is not a car-free circle is a machine circolare.Questo gain is very important.
12) Chapter VIII and IX presents the maturation of the scandalous thesis Turing: can a machine think? Comparisons between Wittgenstein and Turing and Gödel are tightened. The comparison between the human brain and a machine.
13) The universal machine as rappresentazine brain. (Cap.X). Consciousness and the zombie (Cap.XI).
14) Brain and mind. (Cap.XII) The extended mind. (Cap.XIII) The child machine (Cap.XIV)
15) The problem of the Oracle Cap.XV. The contemporary digitale.Cap.XVI.
16) The future Cap.XVII. Eternity ex machina Cap.XVIII.
17) Presentation of discussion groups
18) Presentation and discussion groups.

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