ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES FOR THE SYNTHESIS AND EXTRACTION OF DRUGS
LABORATORIO DI PREPARAZIONE ESTRATTIVA E SINTESI DEI FARMACI
|Lecturer||Office hours for students|
|Annalida Bedini||Every weekday, except on Saturdays, after appointment by email at the address given, or by telephone at +39 0722 303326.|
|Teaching in foreign languages|
Course with optional materials in a foreign language
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.
Assigned to the Degree Course
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The aim of the course is to learn the theoretical and practical basic knowledge necessary to the preparation, purification and characterization of substances showing pharmaceutical interest and to the isolation and characterization of biological molecules from natural sources. Graduates in Chimica e Tecnologia Farmaceutiche must be aware of the basic techniques used in a synthetic laboratory as well as to acquire the dexterity necessary for the realization of safe synthesis and extraction of molecules of pharmaceutical interest. At the end of the course the student will know how to work safely in an organic synthesis laboratory, will be able to understand and reproduce the synthetic procedures described in the literature and then set up, monitor organic reactions and isolate the product in pure form.
Introduction to the Organic Laboratory: safety in the laboratory, planning of the experiments and recording of results. Design and execution of organic synthesis. The impact of various experimental parameters on the execution of organic reactions. Laboratory equipment: assembling components for carrying out typical reactions. Stirring, heating and cooling of reaction mixtures. Excluding moisture from a reaction mixture, reactions under inert atmosphere. Techniques for isolation and purification of products. Filtration techniques and filtering media. Crystallization: theoretical basis, choice of the solvent, simple and fractional crystallization, optical resolution by crystallization. Decolorization and crystal drying. Extraction: theoretical basis, continuous and discontinuous extraction. Drying of organic solvents and solutions. Extraction of solids and of liquids. Techniques of extraction of natural products (maceration, percolation, infusion, decoction, digestion). Supercritical fluid extraction, microwave extraction, ultrasound extraction. Accelerated solvent extraction and Naviglio extractor. Evaporation of the solvent. Use of microwaves and ultrasounds in organic synthesis. Simple distillation, fractional distillation, vacuum distillation, azeotropic distillation and steam distillation: theory and practical aspects. Adsorption chromatography. TLC and column chromatography: equipment and practical aspects. Sublimation: theoretical basis and practical aspects of the technique, atmospheric pressure and vacuum sublimation.
Determination of the physical constants of organic compounds: melting point, boiling point, refractive index, specific rotatory power. Laboratory practical is addressed to the synthesis or isolation from natural sources of substances showing pharmaceutical interest and to their characterization through the determination of the chemical-physical constants and the interpretation of spectra (IR, NMR, Mass).
In order to attend the laboratory practice and acquire the frequency signature, it is necessary to have passed the exam of Organic Chemistry I and attended the laboratory practice of Drug Analysis II.
In order to take the exam it is necessary to acquire the signature of attendance and have passed the examinations of Organic Chemistry I, Drug Analysis I and Drug Analysis II.
Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)
D1 - Knowledge and understanding. The student should have acquired the basic knowledge useful for the synthesis and extraction of substances of pharmaceutical interest from both a theoretical and practical perspective. The student will be able to understand an experimental procedure concerning the synthesis, extraction and characterization of an organic compound of biological interest.
D2 - Applying knowledge and understanding. The student will be able to apply the knowledge acquired during the course, and then be able to conduct practical experiments of synthesis and extraction of substances of pharmaceutical interest, and to appropriately treat a reaction mixture to isolate and purify the desired products through the use of common laboratory procedures.
D3 - Making judgements. The student must show independence of judgment in the interpretation of the experimental data and of the obtained results, as well as the ability to plan and conduct an experiment in organic synthesis employing methods explained and implemented experimentally during the course.
D4 - Communication skills. After completing the course the student will be able to expose what he has learned using appropriate terminology for the purpose of scientific communication regarding proper methods and issues concerning the preparation and purification of compounds of pharmaceutical interest.
D5 - Learning skills. The student will have developed the learn ability useful to continuously update his knowledge and will be able to use it in order to face new synthetic challenges.
The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it
Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment
Lectures (4 cfu) and laboratory practice (5 cfu) conducted in groups whose number depends on the number of students attending the course (usually two or three students per group).
Attendance at laboratory practice is compulsory in order to acquire the attendance signature and be able to take the exam.
- Course books
L.Pavia, G.M. Lampman, G. S. Kriz “Introduction to Organic Laboratory Techniques”. Limited to the topics discussed during the lessons
Techniques in organic chemistry: Miniscale, Standard Taper Microscale, and Williamson Microscale. J. R. Mohrig, C. N. Hammond, P. F. Schatz. Limited to the topics discussed during the lessons.
Reference book: Vogel's Textbook of practical organic chemistry. Longman Scientific and Techical.
The methods of assessment of learning outcomes are based on an ongoing evaluation and an oral examination. The ongoing evaluation, carried out by the teacher during the performance of practical exercises, takes into account the progress that will be made by the student in terms of understanding the proposed experiences, skills and autonomy in their realization. The oral exam (lasting 30-40 min) consists of questions related to both theoretical and practical aspects related to the topics dealt with during the course and is intended to verify the student's ability to link the topics covered during the lessons as well as to solve practical and application issues. The oral examination is expressed in thirties.
Additional Information for Non-Attending Students
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