Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY WITH ELEMENTS OF PHYTOCHEMISTRY
BOTANICA FARMACEUTICA CON ELEMENTI DI FITOCHIMICA

A.Y. Credits
2020/2021 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Bruno Tirillini On appointment
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Technology (LM-13)
Curriculum: PERCORSO COMUNE
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course is aimed at acquiring the theoretical and applied principles of botany and phytochemistry.

The primary objective of the course is to transmit to the students the language of botany, that is to provide the basic botanical knowledge and to know how to apply them in the recognition of the main plants of pharmaceutical interest. In addition, basic phytochemicals elements are provided, namely the classification of secondary metabolites into families on the basis of their chemical structures with the prediction of activity/structure relationships where possible.

Program

How medicinal plants are used and their legislation.

Food, food supplements, claims, medicines, cosmetics, health devices.

How to do a bibliographic search.

Plant cell. Cell wall. Cell communication between them (plasmodesmi- apoplasto -simplasto). Cell aggregates (colonies and cenobi). Pseudo-tissues.

Parenchymal tissues, tegumental, mechanical, conductors, secretors.

Systematics and taxonomy. History of taxonomy

Autotrophic-heterotrophic. Prokaryotes - eukaryotes

Fungi.Cycle of the Claviceps purpurea.

Algae. Toxic algae ( Ostreopsis ovata).

Pteridophytes.

Gymnosperm.

Angiosperms. Seeds of the Angiosperms. Primary structure of the caul. Secondary structure of the caul.

Roots: primary and secondary structure. Flowers, Fruits.

Use of dichotomous keys for the identification of plant species. Exercises on the FLORA of Pignatti.

PHYTOCHEMICALS - The main classes present in plant phytocomplexes are described. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides (trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, upper homologues), polysaccharides (cellulose, starch, fructose, mannose polysaccharides, pectic polysaccharides, chitins, chitosans, polysaccharides present in algae, cycitols and substituted derivatives, branched chain sugars, sugary alcohols, exudated gums). Terpenoids: metabolic pathways for formation of terpenoids; monoterpenoids, iridoids, sesquiterpenoids and lactonic derivatives, abscisic acid, acyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, tetracyclic, macrocyclic, gibberellin, triterpenoids, phytosterols, cardenolids, saponins, carotenoids, gum and polyprenols, degraded terpenoids, sesterterpenoids. Constituents of essential oils. Phenolic compounds: metabolic pathways for the formation of phenolic derivatives; phenols and phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids (hydroxyhymmic acid and derivatives, coumarins, chromones); lignin, stilbenoids, flavonoids, chalk and retrochalk, aurons, flavanoids, anthocyanins, isoflavonoids, biflavonoids, tannins, quinones, xanones. Nitrogen-containing compounds: amines, cyanogenic compounds, alkaloids (tropanic, pyrrolizidinic, pyrrolic, pyrrolidinic, pyridinic, piperidinic, quinolinic, isoquinolinic, quinolyzidinic, indolyl, polyhydroxylate, diterpenoid, steroidal), xanthines, betalene. Sulphur-containing compounds: glucosinolates, dithiyclohexadienes, thiophenes.

Product analysis (moisture, raw protids, raw lipids, ashes, inactivated extractives, fibre according to Weende and Van Soest).

BOTANY. Description of botanical families : Apiaceae, asteraceae, lamiaceae, solanacee.

Botanical and phytochemical description of the main plants of the following groups:

alkaloid plants (atropa, cinchona, Claviceps, coca, colchico, ephedra, henbane, poppy, jimson weed)

anthraquinone plants (aloe, cascara, cassia, frangula, rhubarb)

cardioactive glucoside plants (lily of the valley, digital, scylla)

mucilage plants (algae, marshmallow, mallow)

plants with essential oils (anise, mint)

Bridging Courses

The course is aimed at acquiring the theoretical and applied principles of botany and phytochemistry.

The primary objective of the course is to transmit to the students the language of botany, that is to provide the basic botanical knowledge and to know how to apply them in the recognition of the main plants of pharmaceutical interest. In addition, basic phytochemicals elements are provided, namely the classification of secondary metabolites into families on the basis of their chemical structures with the prediction of activity/structure relationships where possible.

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Knowledge and understanding

The student must know and understand the appropriate botanical terms that are the basis for understanding the description of the articles in the program. Similarly, it should know the stereochemistry of complex molecules and the reaction mechanisms of the main organic chemical reactions. It will also need to know and understand the main mechanisms of biochemical reactions especially with regard to the transfer of chemical binding energy.

The student must also know how to recognize the chemical formulas characterizing the families of secondary metabolites indicated in the program.

There are no prerequisites for this course even if you need skills in plant biology and organic chemistry. This information will be provided as they arise during the course of the programme.

These skills will be evaluated through a written test in which there will be open-ended questions.

Applying knowledge and understanding

The student must be able to correctly use botanical and phytochemical terminology in the acquisition and understanding of a bibliographic search from the main search engines (Scopus, Scifinder and Medline).

These skills will be evaluated through a written test in which there will be open-ended questions.

Making judgements

The student should be able to judge the veracity of information offered by the press and web information network on the content of secondary metabolites as well as on the botanical characteristics of medicinal plants.

These skills will be evaluated through a written test in which there will be open-ended questions.

Communication skills

The student should be able to describe botanical and phytochemical aspects learned

during the course by expressing himself clearly, with appropriate terms and examples.

These skills will be evaluated through a written test in which there will be open-ended questions.

Learning skills

The student should be able to build his growth path.

In this way, it is possible to use the study material provided by the teacher and the in-depth material that he himself can obtain. These skills, as much as possible, will be stimulated by the teacher proposing in-depth study at home during the course, which will then be explained and discussed during the lessons.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Didactics, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment

Didactics

Classroom lessons with audiovisual aids

Attendance

There are no attendance

Students must have the basic knowledge of botany and organic chemistry

Course books

Slides provided by the teacher

E. Maugini, L. Maleci Bini, M. Mariotti Lippi. Manuale di Botanica Farmaceutica.Ed. Piccin.


B. Tirillini. Fondamenti di Fitochimica. Ed. Akros, Arbizzano di Negrar.

Assessment

The assessment of learning includes a written test with ten open-ended questions.

It is also required to write the formula of a characterizing chemical compound.

The questions will be evaluated from 0 to 3 points.

Questions not given will be evaluated 0 points

The correct writing of the formula is evaluated 3 points, the non-writing of the formula involves a penalty of 3 points

The questions have as database the slides provided from the beginning of the course to the students but some will require the contextualization of the notions provided in the slides.

The written test will then be discussed with the student to create another moment of personalized teaching.

The oral exam is judged with a grade in thirtieth.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students

Didactics
Attendance

There are no attendance

Students must have the basic knowledge of botany and organic chemistry

Course books

Slides provided by the teacher

E. Maugini, L. Maleci Bini, M. Mariotti Lippi. Manuale di Botanica Farmaceutica.Ed. Piccin.


B. Tirillini. Fondamenti di Fitochimica. Ed. Akros, Arbizzano di Negrar.

Assessment

The assessment of learning includes a written test with ten open-ended questions.

It is also required to write the formula of a characterizing chemical compound.

The questions will be evaluated from 0 to 3 points.

Questions not given will be evaluated 0 points

The correct writing of the formula is evaluated 3 points, the non-writing of the formula involves a penalty of 3 points

The questions have as database the slides provided from the beginning of the course to the students but some will require the contextualization of the notions provided in the slides.

The written test will then be discussed with the student to create another moment of personalized teaching.

The oral exam is judged with a grade in thirtieth.

« back Last update: 08/06/2021

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