Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2021/2022 8
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Patrizia Ambrogini From Monday to Friday by appointment to be make by email or telephon (0722/304292)
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Industrial Pharmacy (LM-13)
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course aims to provide the student with the following knowledge:

1. processes and cellular mechanisms underlying the major functions of human organism;

2. human body organ functioning;

3. general mechanisms controlling the integrated functions of the various organs under normal conditions.


The program includes the following topics, listed in the order as they will be presented during the course:

1. Transport across cell membrane: passive diffusion; facilitated diffusion; water channels; ion channels; active transport by ATP-powered pumps; cotransport by symporters and antiporters against a concentration gradient; transport across epithelia; endocytosis; exocytosis. Resting membrane potential.

2. Elements of intercellular communication: paracrine, autocrine and endocrine signaling; membrane receptors: ion-channel receptors, G protein-coupled receptors, enzyme-linked receptors; intracellular receptors: cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors; signal transduction pathways.

3. Nervous system (cellular mechanisms): chemical synapses and electrical synapses; neurotransmitters and their receptors; post-synaptic potential; neuron integration function; action potential; myelin sheath and saltatory conduction; sensory receptors: stimulus transduction and codification; reflexes. Autonomic nervous system.

4. Skeletal muscle: sarcomere; excitation-contraction coupling; muscle metabolism; isometric and isotonic contraction; twitch and tetanus; neuromuscular junction; motor unit.

5. Endocrine system: hormones: classification, synthesis and release, action mechanisms; hypothalamus-hypophysis axis.

6. Cardiovascular system: electrical activity of cardiac cells; cardiac cycle; stroke volume and heart rate regulation; cardiac output; local control of blood flow by metabolic, neural and humoral factors; blood pressure and its short and long term regulation; microvascular exchange and Starling forces.

7. Gastrointestinal system: motility: electrical and mechanical activity of smooth muscle cells; mastication; swallowing; esophagus motility; stomach motility; movements of small and large intestine; defecation; secretory functions: salivary secretion; gastric secretion; pancreatic secretion; biliary secretion; intestinal secretion; digestion and absorption; nervous and hormonal regulation of gastrointestinal functions. Endocrine pancreas. 

8. Renal system: glomerular filtration; tubular functions: reabsorption and secretion by the renal tubules; solute reabsorption along proximal tubule, loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct; renal mechanisms for urine concentrating and diluting; renal clearance.

9. Respiratory system: mechanics of pulmonary ventilation; gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary capillary blood; transport of oxigen and carbon dioxide in blood; regulation of respiration.

Bridging Courses

Human anatomy with animal biology elements

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

According to Dublin descriptors, at the end of the course and for passing the exam, students are expected to fulfill the following requirements:

D1- KNOWLEDGE AND CAPACITY OF UNDERSTANDING: to possess good knowledge and understanding of cellular and organ human physiology topics, so as to be able to set a logical and complete discussion about theoretical aspects of the discipline, being also able to make connections among the treated topics;

D2- CAPACITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING: to apply the acquired knowledge to the discussion of different issues within human cellular and organ physiology;

D3- JUDGEMENT AUTONOMY: to have acquired autonomy in the application of knowledge, making independent decisions and choices in the face of different aspects inherent human physiology;

D4- COMMUNICATION  SKILLS; to be able to communicate, clearly and comprehensively, the acquired knowledge, exposing with language property and scientific terms, elaborating an autonomous thinking using the provided information about the diverse issues presented during the course;

D5- LEARNING ABILITY: to analyze and understand scientific texts/articles, also in English, about the topics inherent human physiology and to use them for study and research.

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

No supporting activities.

Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment




Biological, anatomical and biochemical knowledge are necessary to comprehend topics included in the program of Physiology.

Course books

In alternative:

- Vander's Human Physiology. The mechanisms of body function. 2019, McGraw-Hill Education 

- Silverthorn, Human physiology: an integrated approach. 2019, Pearson

- Guyton and Hall, Textbook of medical physiology, 2020, Elsevier


Oral exam addressed to monitor compliance with Dublin Descriptor requirements. The exam will consist of 3/4 questions throughout the course program topics and particular attention will be paid to the verification of the student's ability to make connections among the topics. 

Disability and Specific Learning Disorders (SLD)

Students who have registered their disability certification or SLD certification with the Inclusion and Right to Study Office can request to use conceptual maps (for keywords) during exams.

To this end, it is necessary to send the maps, two weeks before the exam date, to the course instructor, who will verify their compliance with the university guidelines and may request modifications.

« back Last update: 25/05/2022

Il tuo feedback è importante

Raccontaci la tua esperienza e aiutaci a migliorare questa pagina.

Il tuo 5x1000 per sostenere le attività di ricerca

L'Università di Urbino destina tutte le risorse che deriveranno da questa iniziativa alla ricerca scientifica ed al sostegno di giovani ricercatori.

15 22

Se sei vittima di violenza o stalking chiama il 1522, scarica l'app o chatta su www.1522.eu

Il numero, gratuito è attivo 24 h su 24, accoglie con operatrici specializzate le richieste di aiuto e sostegno delle vittime di violenza e stalking.

Posta elettronica certificata



Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo
Via Aurelio Saffi, 2 – 61029 Urbino PU – IT
Partita IVA 00448830414 – Codice Fiscale 82002850418
2024 © Tutti i diritti sono riservati