The course aims to reflect on the process of change in migratory dynamics that occurred in our country during the final decades of the twentieth century. After the resumption of expatriation flows which occurred from the immediate post-war period up to the entire economic miracle, between the seventies and the nineties migratory balances returned to being positive: emigration abroad suffered a decisive contraction and Italy he witnesses the arrival in his territory of increasing immigration flows, bearers of numerous and complex questions that affect different spheres: the political one first of all, but immediately after the legal and economic one. What social policies to manage the migration problem and what legislative instruments to implement them and at what price? But the more complex question that the inversion of migratory flows poses to the country affects Italian society at the cultural level: the themes of acceptance and rejection arise as opposing stereotypes from which all the behaviors and perceptions that, since then onwards, they define the attitude of Italians in the face of this problem. The course aims to provide the historiographical tools to critically understand this delicate and crucial passage.