Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2021/2022 20
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Luisa Landi From monday to friday by appointment
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English French Spanish
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Conservation and Restauration of Cultural Heritage (LMR/02)
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives


Dr BENEDETTA FAZI - Assistant Dr Agnese Maltoni

The theoretical course will allow the student to acquire the main notions inherent to the artefacts painted on textile support through the knowledge of the executive techniques and the constituent materials on the basis of the study of the sources. During the workshop, models will be made as follows: support structure, textile support, preparations, primers, preparatory drawing, pictorial drafts. Traditional linings will be made on the models


DR DEBORA MINOTTI - Assistant Dr Serena Vella

The student will have the opportunity to directly observe and study the degradation factors that alter the originality of paintings on canvas. Through direct experience he will have the opportunity to know the various intervention materials, their properties and the different application techniques. During the course, laboratory activities will be carried out,  they can be performed on models, created to also allow the students to have training experiences. Case studies will be illustrated.


DR LUISA LANDI- Assistant Dr Serena Vella

The cleaning operation is presented as one of the most risky restoration operations because it is irreversible and such as to change the perception of the image of the work. For this reason, in order to proceed with the cleaning operation, in addition to a careful analysis of the constituent materials and degradation, attention will be drawn to the necessary knowledge of the materials that can be used for the selective removal of deposit dirt and altered layers. Cleaning interventions will be carried out on the works present in the laboratory and made available for the course. Facsimiles may be proposed to put the acquired knowledge into practice.


Dr LUCA ANTONELLI- Assistant Dr Crisitana Ciocchetti

On the theoretical level, we intend to retrace the development of intervention practices on the canvas supports of the paintings, from the first historical evidence of the 18th century, retracing the salient phases in the 19th century, up to the most important recent updates.
In the laboratory and in front of the available works, an attempt will be made to provide the critical tools to assess the conditions and be able to recognize the interventions already carried out, in order to be able to respond to the needs of a new restoration or maintenance intervention.
Particular attention will be paid to traditional intervention methods, but always in comparison with the option of synthetic materials, paying attention to the advantages and limits of each choice.

INTEGRATIVE MODULE Photography for diagnostics


Knowledge and understanding of the theoretical foundations of diagnostics and correct documentation standards; understanding of the potential, difficulties and methods of diagnostics. Application of the acquired knowledge in the laboratory; practical execution of diagnostic surveys; ability to solve problems related to the practical application of acquired knowledge. Assessment of the relevant conditions and ability to adapt; selection of the most consistent diagnostic techniques with the case history and the ability to cross-reference data; understanding of the results, evaluation of the conditions of the cultural property examined in relation to the conservation process; envisage hypotheses for conducting the diagnostic approach. Ability to translate the information obtained from diagnostic findings into written or oral reports; critical comparison on the results. Learn about the conservation conditions of a work also through alternative or non-priority diagnostic surveys and through secondary and accessory elements to optimize the interpretation of the data.

INTEGRATIVE MODULE of History of artistic techniques

Dr. Daphne de Luca

Acquisition of the fundamental notions on the executive techniques of works of art, from antiquity to the modern age. Through an examination of the main sources of artistic literature, a correct reading of the scientific analyzes aimed at identifying the constituent materials and the illustration of exemplary case studies, the tools will be provided for the recognition of the operating methods of the creators of the past and of the materials. that make up the works of art, firmly connecting them to the history of art.


SECTION 2.1 Dr BENEDETTA FAZI - Assistente Dr Agnese Maltoni

1. Executive techniques

1a. The stratigraphy of a painting on canvas (5 HOURS)

1b. Support structure (3 HOURS)

1c. Support (3 HOURS)

1d. Preparatory layers (3 HOURS)

1e. Preparatory drawing (1 HOUR)

2. History of the evolution of painting on canvas

2a. Historical sources (1 HOUR)

2b. Antiquity (1 HOUR)

2c. The fourteenth century (1 HOURS)

2d. The 15th century (1 HOUR)

2e. The sixteenth century (1 HOUR)

2f. The seventeenth century (1 HOUR)

2 g. The eighteenth century (1 HOUR)

2h. The nineteenth century (1 HOUR)

3. History and traditional methods of coating (4 HOURS)

4a. Preparation of the canvas (12 HOURS)

4b. Preparation and drafting of the preparatory layers (30 HOURS)

4c. Transposition of the preparatory drawing (dusting, direct and indirect engraving, brushstrokes and brushstrokes, calcination method with cardboard, etc.) (8 HOURS)

4d. Paintings (16 HOURS)

4e. Realization of traditional linings on models (32 HOURS)


Dr DEBORA MINOTTI  -  Assistente Dr Serena Vella

The course will focus on the study and observation of the stratification of paintings on canvas and on the identification of the factors and effects of degradation present:

1. Layering of paintings on canvas: frame, canvas, preparatory layers, pictorial layers, protective layers (7 HOURS).

2. The various phenomena that lead to changes in both the support and the various pictorial layers present in a painting will be analyzed. The various deterioration factors will be addressed and analyzed: chemical factor; physical-mechanical factor; biological factor; previous restoration work (7 HOURS).

3. Various effects of the degradation produced on the works will be examined and investigated: the destruction of forces in a painting; type of cretto (7 HOURS).

Description and application of materials and methods of intervention:

4. The various classes of adhesives and consolidants (properties and chemical-physical aspects) will be studied and compared (7 HOURS).

5. Restoration techniques: from traditional to more innovative methods (12 hours).

6. Comparison of the various application methods: by brush; hot table; low pressure; vacuum packed (17 HOURS).

7. Protection of the pictorial surface: velinatura (7 HOURS).

8. Localized stopping of the pictorial film (24 HOURS).

9. Pre-consolidation and consolidation of the pictorial layers (24 HOURS).

10. Surface improvement. Crack treatment (5 HOURS).

11. Treatment of de-acidification of the cloth: the DP and the pH of the textile support (3 HOURS).

12. Cleaning of the back side (5 HOURS).


Dr LUISA LANDI - Assistente Dr Serena Vella

1. Introduction to Cleaning (2 HOURS)

2. Aqueous environment. Thickeners and Gelling Agents (2 HOURS).

3. Acids and Bases, Materials for making Buffer solutions and their differences, (4 HOURS)

4. Ionic concentration, Chelants, Surfactants, Solubility Tests (2 HOURS)

5. O / W, W / O emulsions, gelled emulsions; Resins Soaps (2 HOURS)

6. Organic Solvents, Triangle of solubility, Solubility test, Solvent / gels, Neutral waxy emulsion.


7. Using the pH meter and conductivity meter (2 HOURS)

8. Preparation of solubility tests with aqueous solutions and with organic solvents. Tests and use. (22 HOURS)

9. Preparation of thickened or supported solvent mixtures on the basis of cleaning tests performed on the works (or models) present in the Laboratory (15 HOURS)

10. Use of the microscope during cleaning operations. Interventions on the artifacts according to the works available for teaching, with particular attention to cleaning and removal of the above-mentioned substances found on the artifacts. Chemical and physical knowledge of the materials used. (44 HOURS)

11. Integrative Photography Module for diagnostics DR. PAOLO A. M. TRIOLO (24 HOURS)


Dr LUCA ANTONELLI- Assistant dr Crisitana Ciocchetti

1. The practice of restoration in antiquity and the masters of the 19th century, the Greenwich conference, the minimum intervention.

2. Analysis of the work, the physiological degradation of materials and external elements.

3. Design of an intervention on the canvas support and evaluation of the possible options, the choice of restoration materials in relation to the different supports.

4. Color varnishing: the different types of papers and adhesives that can be used - evaluation and choice opportunities in relation to the characteristics of the works

5. Treatment of the preparation layers and the paint film, consolidation with traditional and synthetic adhesives. Methods of application: by brush and vacuum

6. Treatment of the support, integration of gaps and suturing of lacerations: integration systems, merits and limits of the materials that can be used.

7. Lining comparison between traditional systems, lining with acrylic resin in water or reactivated with solvent (Merha) and heat reactivable copolymers (Bergher). Margining, maintenance on the original frame, disassembly of the canvases from the support and evaluation of the possibilities offered by the advantages of the minimum intervention.

INTEGRATIVE MODULE Photography for diagnostics


1. Introduction to photographic documentation and multispectral imaging for BB.CC .; case studies and data interpretation (4 HOURS)

2. Technique and instrumentation; case studies and data interpretation (4 HOURS)

3. Computational techniques; case studies and data interpretation II (4 HOURS)

4. Color correction (4 HOURS)

5. Post-production of multi-shot images (4 HOURS)

6. Post-production of computational techniques (4 HOURS)

7. Construction of the set; case studies and data interpretation III (4 HOURS)

8. Set and practical post-production (4 HOURS)

9. Application in the laboratory on works, interpretation of data IV (8 AM)

10. Application in the laboratory on works, interpretation of data V (8 HOURS)

Integrative module of History of artistic techniques

1. Mural paintings (in fresco and dry) (5 HOURS);

2. Stone artefacts and derivatives (stone sculpture, mosaics, stuccoes, inlays) (5 HOURS);

3. Painted artefacts on wooden and textile support (6 HOURS);

4. Artifacts carved in wood (painting on canvas and on wood, wooden sculpture, inlay) ( 5 HOURS);

5. The modus operandi of Giotto and some of his most famous masterpieces painted on the wall and on panel (5 HOURS);

6. The modus operandi of Carlo Crivelli (5 HOURS);

7. Federico Barocci's modus operandi (5 HOURS).

Bridging Courses

Each section can be attended having followed the previous one with at least 75% presence and in the following order:

Section 2.1

Section 2.2

Section 2.3

Section 2.4

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

D.1 The student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding of executive techniques, degradation phenomenology, cleaning techniques, structural interventions on the support and preparatory and pictorial layers of a canvas painting

D.2 The student will have to practically apply the acquired knowledge, demonstrating aptitude to solve problems also in reference to new and interdisciplinary situations

D.3 The student must demonstrate independent evaluation and ability to find and assimilate information and data useful for the correct formulation of an intervention hypothesis

D.4 The student must demonstrate the ability to draw up a precise technical report of the interventions performed with relative justification of methodologies and materials chosen using an adequate specialist terminology

D.5 The student must demonstrate the aptitude for study and independent learning

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Supporting Activities

The teaching material prepared by the teacher in addition to the recommended texts (such as slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and the teacher's specific communications for teaching can be found on the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Teaching, Attendance, Course Books and Assessment




DIDACTIC REGULATION art.7 a.a. 2020-2021

Attendance at the restoration laboratory activities is mandatory; Absences are allowed for no more than 25% of the total number of hours relating to the Laboratory attended and for no more than 25% of the total number of hours of each individual section of the relative Laboratory. Attendance registration is required. The presence in the restoration laboratories is subject to the acquisition of the certificates relating to the Safety courses as indicated in the Regulations of the Restoration laboratories.

Course books

The teaching material prepared by the teacher in addition to the recommended texts (such as slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and the teacher's specific communications for teaching can be found on the Moodle platform ›blended.uniurb.it

SECTION 2.1 Benedetta Fazi



CENNINI C., Il Libro dell'Arte, a cura di F. Brunello, Neri Pozza Editore, Vicenza 1971, cap. CXIII- CXXI; cap. CLXII – CLXV 

DE MAYERNE T.T., Pittura, scultura e delle arti minori (1620-1646), a cura di Simona Rinaldi, De Rubeis, Anzio 1995, pp. VII-XI; 27-31; 77-78; 91-93; 196-197; 208-211; 221-229. 

ARMENINI G. B. (ed.1586), De’ veri precetti della pittura, a cura di M. Gorreri, Einaudi, Torino 1988, pp. 119, 138-145

VASARI G. (ed. 1550),  Le Vitae dei più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architetti, a cura di L. Bellosi e A. Rossi, Einaudi, Torino 1986, cap. XXI, XXIII. 

VOLPATO G.B., Modo da tener nel dipingere, in M.P.Merrield, The original treatises on the art of painting, New York 1967, pp.727-755. 

PACHECO FRANCISCO, Arte de la pintura, Siviglia 1649, pp.480-482. 

DOERNER M., The materials of the artist and their use in painting, Harcourt Brace and World, New York 1962, pp. 3-44. 

DE CHIRICO G., Piccolo trattato di tecnica pittorica, Scheiwiller, Milano 1928, pp.9-61       

Testi di studio

COLDAGELLI M.C., TORRIOLI N., Introduzione ai supporti tessili in C. Maltese (a cura di), I supporti nelle arti pittoriche. Storia, tecnica, restauro. Parte seconda. Mursia, Milano 1990, pp. 15-19, 26-38, 49-111. MARCONI S., Preparazioni e imprimiture dei dipinti su tavola e tela: materiali, metodi e storia in C. Maltese (a cura di), Preparazione e nitura delle opere pittoriche, Mursia, Milano 1993, pp.11-  18, 27- 34, 71-116, 163-178. 

MATTEINI M., MOLES A., Tecnica della pittura antica: le preparazioni del supporto in Kermes, anno II, n°4. gennaio/aprile 1989. 

M.CIATTI, E. SIGNORINI, a cura di, Dipinti su tela problemi e prospettive per la conservazione, Il Prato, Padova, 2006 pp. 9-48, 85-93. 


Debora Minotti 

Testi di studio 

L. BORGIOLI, P. CREMONESI, Le resine sintetiche usate nel trattamento di opera policrome, Il prato, Padova 2005.

M.F. MECKLENBURG, Meccanismi di cedimento nei dipinti su tela: approcci per lo sviluppo di protocolli di consolidamento, Il Prato, Padova, 2007.

MAURO MATTEINI, ARCANGELO MOLES, ROCCO MAZZEO, Chemistry for restoration. Painting and restoration materials, Nardini Editore, Firenze 2017.

MAURO MATTEINI, ARCANGELO MOLES, La chimica nel restauro, Nardini Editore, Firenze 2001

V. R. MEHRA, La foderatura a freddo. I testi fondamentali per la metodologia e la pratica, Nardini editore, Firenze 1995.

SECTION 2.3  Luisa Landi

P. CREMONESI, E. SIGNORINI,Un approccio alla pulitura dei dipinti mobili, Il Prato Padova, 2012 

P. CREMONESI, L’uso dei solventi organici nella pulitura di opere policrome, I Talenti, Il Prato Padova , 2004

P. CREMONESI, L’ambiente acquoso per la pulitura di opere policrome, I Talenti  Il Prato Padova, 2011 

P. CREMONESI, L'Uso di Tensiaottivi e Chelanti nella Pulitura di Opere Policrome, I Talenti 10 Seconda Edizione, Il Prato, Padova, 2004 

P. CREMONESI Parola d’ordine: Ligroina! ... Vale ancora?, Progetto Restauro, Il Prato, Padova,2009, 51, pp. 39-48. 

P. CREMONESI, L'uso dei solventi organici nella pulitura di opere policrome, I Talenti, 7, Seconda Edizione, Il Prato, Padova, 2004 

SECTION 2.4 Luca Antonelli

Turquet De Mayerne pittura scultura e delle arti minori – ed De Rubeis 
Cennino Cennini Il libro dell’arte ed Neri Pzza 
Antonio Orlandi “l’abecedario Pittorico” 1719 
Giovanni Secco Suardo – Il restauratore di Dipinti – Hoepli  
Stefano Scarpelli  “Confronto tra la foderatura Romana e Fiorentina” – Kermes  
Matteo Rossi Doria Requiem o recupero dei sistemi tradizionali.... XI° Congresso Nazionale IGIIC- Lo Stato dell’Arte – Accademia delle Belle Arti di Bologna – 10/12 Ottobre 2013 
Berger G.A. "La foderatura, metodologia e tecnica" - ed. Nardini 1992 
Mehra V.R. "Foderatura a freddo" - ed. Nardini 1995 
Barbara Lavorini La rintelatura con metodo fiorentino: varianti di applicazione della pasta fiorentina in Post prints Convegno Dipinti su tela. Problemi e prospettive per la conservazione Ferrara 2006 Ed. Il Prato 
La Crocefissione di Dro un caso estremo di mantenimento dell’originale – ed Il Prato 
Dipinti su tela problemi e prospettive per la conservazione -Cesmar7 – ed il prato

 MODULO INTEGRATIVO fotografia per la diagnostica


P. A. M. TRIOLO, Manuale pratico di documentazione e diagnostica per immagine per i BB.CC., Il Prato, Padova, 2019

G. VERRI, J. CUPITT, Multispectral Imaging in Reflectance and Photo-induced Luminescence modes: A User Manual, Charisma Project, British Museum, 2013 online

MODULO INTEGRATIVO di Storia delle tecniche artistiche


S. RINALDI, Storia tecnica dell’arte. Materiali e metodi della pittura e della scultura (secc. V-XIX), Carocci editore, Roma 2011, pp. 53-70, 109-167, 169-192, 207-238.  

D. DE LUCA, I manufatti dipinti su supporto tessile. Vademecum per allievi restauratori, Terza edizione aggiornata, Collana Lineamenti di Conservazione e Restauro dei Beni Culturali, Il Prato, Padova 2021, pp. 15-59.

A.A. V.V, Dimos, Tecniche di esecuzione e materiale costitutivi. Corso sulla manutenzione di dipinti murali, mosaici, stucchi, parte I, modulo 1, Istituto Centrale per il Restauro, Roma 1995, pp. 7-41, 63-85

D. DE LUCA, Crocifissi giotteschi. Alcune ipotesi sull’organizzazione del lavoro nella bottega medievale, in «Bollettino dell’Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro», (16-17) 2008, pp. 49-68 (solo per l’apparato fotografico: D. De Luca, L’entreprise de Giotto, in «CeRoart», 7, 2011, http://ceroart.revues.org)

G. BASILE (a cura di), Giotto nella Cappella degli Scrovegni: materiali per la tecnica pittorica. Studi e ricerche dell’Istituto Centrale per il Restauro, in “Bollettino D’Arte”, Volume Speciale 2005, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, pp. 10-12, 47-57, 73-77 (solo per l’apparato fotografico: pp. 13-16, 63-72, 79-82)

D. DE LUCA, Indagini sull’ underdrawing nella bottega del Barocci, in B. Cleri (a cura di), Barocci in bottega, giornata di studi, 26 Urbino ottobre 2012, Editoriale Umbra 2013, pp. 261-280

D. DE LUCA, Il polittico di Carlo Crivelli a Montefiore dell’Aso, prefazione di C. Strinati, Edifir, Firenze 2021, pp. 69-87.

Reading the following texts is recommended:

F. FREZZATO (a cura di), Cennino Cennini, Il libro dell’arte, edizione Neri Pozza, I Colibrì, Vicenza 2003, capp. LXVII, LXVIIII, LXXII, CXV-CXXIII, CLIV-CLVI, pp. 110-117, 120-122, 144-150, 177, 178, 182-186

L. BELLOSI, A. ROSSI (a cura di), Giorgio Vasari. Le vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori italiani, da Cimabue insino a’ tempi nostri (Firenze 1550), Einaudi, Torino 1991, vol. I, capp. XVI-XXIII, pp. 60-70

C. CASTELLI, Tecniche di costruzione dei supporti lignei, in Dipinti su tavola. La tecnica e la conservazione dei supporti, M. Ciatti, C. Castelli, A. Santacesaria (a cura di), Edifir Firenze 2007, pp. 59-98

F. TONINI, La scultura lignea. Tecnica e restauro. Manuale per allievi restauratori, in Collana Lineamenti di Conservazione e Restauro dei Beni Culturali, Il Prato, Padova 2015, pp. 81-86, 101-122

L. E P. MORA, P. PHILIPPOT, La conservazione delle pitture murali, ICCROM, Editrice Compositori 1999, pp. 108-122, 146-172

A. MINET, Les tüchlein et les succhi d’erba, CeRoart, Hors-série, 2010, URL : https://ceroart.revues.org/1737


After having attended at least 75% of each single laboratory section, the student will be able to take the relative partial during the official exam sessions.

After having taken the partial exams of each of the 4 sections and the supplementary module, the exam will be recorded during the official exam sessions with a single evaluation resulting from the average of the partial evaluations. The evaluation of the final grade will be obtained as follows:

Average of partial ratings 90%

Supplementary module rating 10%


Partial examination

To take each partial exam, the student must submit a Technical Report of the activity carried out in the laboratory. In agreement with the reference teacher. The paper must be sent by e-mail at least two weeks before the exam to the teachers on computer support.

The partial exam consists of an oral interview to be taken with the teacher belonging to the section.

The oral exam will focus on:

operations carried out in the laboratory;

bibliography provided by the teachers

discussion on the report presented.

The final grade of the partial exam will be the percentage sum of three grades: Laboratory, written report and oral exam. The evaluation metric will be as follows:

Laboratory 40%

The Laboratory Activities will have the following evaluation from:

18 if the student covers the minimum attendance

19 to 28 if the student demonstrates good manual skills

28 to 30 if the student actively participates and interacts with the group

Written Report 20%

The written report will have a rating from

18 to 25 if the report covers all the topics covered

25 to 28 if the report has adequate technical language and relevant examples

28 to 30 if all the elements of the report are illustrated in a complete and in-depth manner.

Oral exam 40%

The oral exam will have an evaluation from

18 to 23 if the answers to the questions are incomplete and lacking in adequate language

24 to 28 if the answers to the questions are complete and with adequate language

28 to 30 if the student demonstrates the ability to process and interpret the knowledge acquired

Exam Supplementary module

For the supplementary module there is a written report to be agreed with the teacher

Disabilità e DSA

Le studentesse e gli studenti che hanno registrato la certificazione di disabilità o la certificazione di DSA presso l'Ufficio Inclusione e diritto allo studio, possono chiedere di utilizzare le mappe concettuali (per parole chiave) durante la prova di esame.

A tal fine, è necessario inviare le mappe, due settimane prima dell’appello di esame, alla o al docente del corso, che ne verificherà la coerenza con le indicazioni delle linee guida di ateneo e potrà chiederne la modifica.

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students


Students who have not attended at least 75% of each laboratory section will not be allowed to take partial exams.

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