Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo / Portale Web di Ateneo


A.Y. Credits
2024/2025 6
Lecturer Email Office hours for students
Walter Balduini
Teaching in foreign languages
Course with optional materials in a foreign language English Spanish
This course is entirely taught in Italian. Study materials can be provided in the foreign language and the final exam can be taken in the foreign language.

Assigned to the Degree Course

Nutritional Science (L-29)
Date Time Classroom / Location
Date Time Classroom / Location

Learning Objectives

The course is aimed to provide the general concepts of toxicology and illustrate how these principles are applied for the assessment of food safety.


General Toxicology: Xenobiotics, toxic agents and toxins, poisonous/toxic effects, selective toxicity. Characteristics of the exposure to toxic agents. The spectrum of the toxic effects; immediate versus delayed toxicity; local versus systemic toxicity; reversible versus irreversible toxic effects; allergic and idiosyncratic reactions. Basic principles of chemically-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Direct-acting versus indirect carcinogens. Developmental and reproductive toxicology. Interaction of chemicals; antidotes. Dose-response relationship in toxicology: individual and graded dose-response relationship for toxicant with or without threshold; hormesis. Lethal dose 50 (LD50), therapeutic index, margin of safety and exposure, chronicity index, lethal time 50 (LT50). Animal studies and international harmonization. Acute and repeated-dose studies (subacute, subchronic, and chronic testing). Developmental and reproductive toxicology. New technologies in pre-clinical toxicology. Toxicology in clinical studies. Mechanisms of toxicity. Processes that can change the concentration of the terminal toxic species to the target. Mechanisms and consequences of cell injuries. Adaptive responses and toxicity resulting from tissue-specific alterations in cell growth and differentiation. Epatotoxicity as an example of organ toxicity
Risk assessment/Food toxicology. Hazard Identification: structure-activity relationship, in vitro tests and short-medium-long term animal tests; epidemiological data and on the mechanisms of action. Evaluation of the dose-response relationship: the toxic effects with and without thresholds. NOEL, NOAEL, LOAEL, FEL, ADI. Risk perception, characterization, management and communication.  Toxic substances of natural origin and from technological processes in food. Food additives and residues. Mushroom's toxicity. Foods in the modulation of toxic effects. Food allergies and intolerances. Food and risk of cancer. Biotechnology in food processing and safety of consumers. The main regulator agencies and the web resources on food safety

Learning Achievements (Dublin Descriptors)

Skill to focus on issues related to the risk of exposure to additives and chemical residues in food. To understand the importance of in vitro and in vivo studies to identify and characterize the toxicity of substances in food. Knowing how to look at the main toxicology database to obtain information on additives or residuals substances in food. Learn about the activities and the approach of the main regulatory agency dealing with food

Teaching Material

The teaching material prepared by the lecturer in addition to recommended textbooks (such as for instance slides, lecture notes, exercises, bibliography) and communications from the lecturer specific to the course can be found inside the Moodle platform › blended.uniurb.it

Additional Information for Non-Attending Students


It is advisable to use the recommended book, integrating it with the slides made available within the Moodle platform"

« back Last update: 02/07/2024

Il tuo feedback è importante

Raccontaci la tua esperienza e aiutaci a migliorare questa pagina.

Il tuo 5x1000 per sostenere le attività di ricerca

L'Università di Urbino destina tutte le risorse che deriveranno da questa iniziativa alla ricerca scientifica ed al sostegno di giovani ricercatori.

15 22

Se sei vittima di violenza o stalking chiama il 1522, scarica l'app o chatta su www.1522.eu

Il numero, gratuito è attivo 24 h su 24, accoglie con operatrici specializzate le richieste di aiuto e sostegno delle vittime di violenza e stalking.

Posta elettronica certificata



Università degli Studi di Urbino Carlo Bo
Via Aurelio Saffi, 2 – 61029 Urbino PU – IT
Partita IVA 00448830414 – Codice Fiscale 82002850418
2024 © Tutti i diritti sono riservati